Most governments in the developing world have adopted electoral institutions, many in the last few decades. While democratization has improved the lot of many, these electoral institutions vary considerably in their ability hold politicians accountable. Emergent democracies are frequently plagued by violence, fraud, corruption, weak accountability, and clientelism. This seminar is a discussion of the nature of electoral institutions in developing democracies, with a particular focus on the causes and consequences of these ills. Among other things, we will seek answers to the following questions: Why do governments adopt electoral institutions, but then fail to permit free and fair voting? When and why do governments use fraud and violence to win elections? What has been the impact of development aid, election monitoring and democracy assistance on elections and democratization? To answer these questions we will draw on an emerging political science literature on these topics, as well as a number of case studies, both from the developed and developing world. Students are expected to be active participants in this course, and will participate in several class debates and writing exercises.